카테고리 없음2019. 4. 22. 05:10


파리는 지난 주 두번 불탔다. 주말에 노란조끼 시위대 200여명이 경찰에 체포되었다. 월요일은 노트르담 성당이 불타고, 5일 후에는 가난한 프랑스인들과 부자 프랑스인들 사이 갈등의 화염이 이 파리 시내를 뒤덮었다. 파리 소방관들은 성당 화재 진압을, 이제는 노란 조끼 (질레 존) 시위대, 무정부주의자들의 화재를 진압하고 있다. 


불탄 노트르담 성당보다 경제적 불평등에 고통받는 프랑스인들이 더 중요하다고 노란 조끼 시위대들은 외쳤다.

수리 보수가 필요한 5500개 프랑스 성당에 기부금을 내지 않던 구찌 입생로랑 회장은 1억 유로, 루이뷔통 아르노 회장은 2억 유로를 기부하겠다고 했다. 세금감면 혜택이 60%라서 국세 낭비라는 지적도 있다.


마크롱 긴축정책과 유류세 인상 등에 반대하는 노란조끼 시위대들은 이러한 프랑스 부자들의 위선과 이중성을 꼬집었다.

마크롱과 유명 브랜드 자본가들이 "가난하고 비참한 레 미제라블" 프랑스인들에게는 아무것도 기여하지 않고, 노트르담 성당 화재 복원 기부로써, 정치적 무책임과 위선을 드러냈다고 비난했다.


특히 42세 마크롱 대통령은 작년 11월 이후 유류세 인상에 반발하는 저소득층의 반발을 잠재우려고, 노트르담 성당 복원을 프랑스 '민족적 통일성 고취' 계기로 이용하려고 했다. 그러나 이번 주말 시위로 다시 마크롱의 정책적 실패는 도마위에 올랐다.


노트르담 성당 복원도 마크롱은 5년 안에 끝내겠다고 장담했지만, 문화재 복원 전문가들은 마크롱 주장에 대해 의구심을 보내고 있다. 


결론적으로 마크롱의 '긴축정책', 복지삭감, 저소득층에게는 경제적 부담을 지우는 유류세 인상 등과 같은 정책적 실패를 '노트르담 성당' 화재 기회로 반전을 꾀하려고 했던 마크롱이 다시 정치적 위기에 봉착했다.




Millions for Notre Dame – but nothing for us, say gilets jaunes


The Observer




Angelique Chrisafis in Paris


Sat 20 Apr 2019 17.16 BST First published on Sat 20 Apr 2019 17.14 BST





Riot police and protesters have fought running battles in the centre of Paris as gilets jaunes anti-government demonstrators in fluorescent yellow vests led street marches over what they called “a crisis” of high taxes and economic inequality.


Less than a week after the fire that destroyed the roof and spire of Notre Dame Cathedral, firefighters rushed to put out multiple small fires around the Place de la République, as motorbikes, bins, bicycles and cars were set alight on roads and pavements. Groups of masked men threw projectiles and police fired teargas. Some rioters in masks smashed the window of a sports shop and ran in to loot it, emerging with bags full of goods.


The interior minister, Christophe Castaner, said on Saturday that Paris could become “the capital of rioting”, suggesting extremist demonstrators planned to attend the street marches. Politicians from Emmanuel Macron’s La République En Marche party said “black bloc” masked anarchist protesters were present.


The street demonstrations had begun peacefully in Paris on Saturday morning – the latest in five months of gilets jaunes demonstrations that began as a fuel-tax revolt in November and have morphed into an anti-protest movement in response to the government’s tax and social policies.


Marching from outside the economy ministry, protesters calmly carried French flags with slogans against Macron written on their yellow vests, such as: “Macron, you take from the poor to give to the rich.”



Notre Dame €1bn fund pits Paris against provinces

 Read more

Some carried banners slamming the “hypocrisy” of wealthy billionaires pledging a total of more than €1bn (£865m) to rebuild Notre Dame Cathedral, saying business leaders had done nothing to address low salaries and the plight of people who couldn’t make ends meet. “Humans first, €1bn for the gilets jaunes,” read one banner.


“Millions for Notre Dame, what about for us, the poor?” read a sign worn by a demonstrator. “Everything for Notre Dame, nothing for Les Misérables,” read another sign that evoked Victor Hugo’s novel.



 Riot police fire teargas at protesters.

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 Riot police fire teargas at protesters. Photograph: Julien de Rosa/EPA

Many protesters said they were frustrated that the international effort to help the fire-damaged cathedral had eclipsed their yellow vest movement against wealth inequality.


In the early afternoon, police clashed with protesters near Place de la République in central Paris. The area was saturated with teargas and men, many with their faces wrapped in bandanas, began pulling individual motorbikes into roads and torching them, the air thick with smoke. Some bins and bicycles were also torched.


Five days after 500 Paris firefighters had battled for nine hours to contain the Notre Dame blaze, fire officers worked to put out the multiple small street fires.


By mid-afternoon, the Paris police issued an appeal on social media for peaceful yellow vest demonstrators to leave Place de la République in order to clearly distance themselves from masked rioters. Police fired teargas and stun grenades and a water cannon was used.


One banner on a statue in Place de la République read “Vive Assange”, expressing support for Julian Assange after his arrest by British police earlier this month.



Gilets jaunes banned from protesting near Notre Dame in Paris

 Read more

By 5pm, as hundreds remained in the area, the main square was largely calm, with occasional clashes between police and demonstrators on side streets. Police began moves to clear the remaining crowds.


Meanwhile, a second, authorised peaceful yellow vest protest marched from the northern edge of Paris down to the centre.


Paris police said authorities detained more than 200 people on Saturday and had carried out spot checks of more than 17,000 people who had tried to enter the capital for the protests before the demonstrations or attempted to join them.


The interior ministry said the numbers of demonstrators was up on the previous Saturday, estimating that more than 27,900 people had marched across France, with 9,000 in Paris.


When Notre Dame cathedral caught fire on Monday night, the centrist French president Macron cancelled a speech in which he was to make policy announcements aimed at calming the yellow vest movement. He will instead give a long press conference on Thursday – the first since he was elected two years ago.


“We’re waiting for strong measures from the government that we still haven’t seen, and there’s an urgency to act on democracy, tax, society and the environment,” said one yellow vest protester in Paris.

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역사(history)2019. 4. 17. 02:34

빅토 위고 소설 "노틀담의 곱추"가 화요일, 독일 아마존 온라인 서점에서 가장 사랑받는 고전 문학 2위를 차지했다.


tagesschau


4 mins · 


Victor Hugos „Der Glöckner von Notre-Dame“ hat am Dienstag die Spitze der Verkaufscharts von Amazon in Frankreich erklommen. 


Auch weltweit landete die englische Übersetzung des Romans bei Amazon an der Spitze zweier Bestsellerlisten für historische Literatur. 


Bei deutschen Amazon-Kunden stand das Buch am Dienstag auf Platz zwei der beliebtesten literarischen Klassiker.



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도시계획2019. 4. 17. 00:25

문화재 보존 방식 : 전쟁, 자연재해, 화재가 문화재를 훼손시키는 3대 요소이다. 문화재를 보존하고 파손을 예방하는 방법 중요성. 


(1) 화재 진압 방식 : 노트르담 성당은 석회암으로 만들어졌다. 석회암이 고열로 인해 파열된다면 성당벽들이 흔들거릴 수 있다. 


화재 진압에 물을 사용해야 한다. 소방수들도 선택지가 물 이외에 많지 않다. 하지만 방화재로 물을 사용하는 것 역시 돌을 파열시키는 위험을 감수해야 한다.  


메간 리스폴리 (월터 멜빈 건축 기획 책임자) 견해:
"화재 진압을 위해 물을 뿌리는 것은 돌벽을 훼손시킬 수 있다. 

건축외벽 돌이 화재로부터 발생한 열기를 흡수하게 되면 그 돌은 팽창하게 된다. 이런 팽창 상태에다 물을 뿌리게 되면 온도가 떨어지면서 돌이 수축된다. 이렇게 돌이 팽창했다 수축하는 과정에서 파열이 발생한다. 


불이 붙은 돌에 찬물을 끼얹어 진압하면 그 돌은 금이 가고 조각조각 파편화되기 쉽다. 벽돌과 같은 석조건물들에 화재가 발생했을 때, 물로 진압했을 경우, 그런 돌이 깨지는 현상이 관찰되었다. "



(2) 불행중 다행인 경우:


현재 최상의 시나리오는 노트르담 성당 천정과 지붕만 불탄 경우가 될 것이다. 지붕 안쪽 건축물들은 훼손당하지 않고 살아남았다. 

노트르담 성당 만들 당시 건축가들이 돌을 사용한 건 화재 예방 목적도 있었다. 성당 천정은 돌로 만든 아치형이다. 


(3) 남은 과제


재건축 과정에서 엔지니어들이 화재로부터 살아남은 성당구조물을 우선 안정화시켜야 한다

재건 과정도 쉽지는 않고, 납땜과 같은 작업, 용해제를 쓰는 과정에서도  화재가 발생할 수도 있다.


(4) 재건 희망이 있는 이유는, 과거 불탄 성당들을 재건한 기술들이 있다.

가장 유명한 사례가 1914년 9월 독일 폭격에 쓰러진 랭스 대성당이다. 랭스 대성당 (Reims) 은 13세기에 지어졌다.  (*1919년에 재건이 시작되어 1938년에 완공되었다고 함. )



Amid Notre-Dame’s Destruction, There’s Hope for Restoration


https://www.citylab.com/design/2019/04/notre-dame-cathedral-fire-paris-gothic-architecture-history/587191/


KRISTON CAPPS FEARGUS O'SULLIVAN  APR 15, 2019


Flames consumed the roof and spire of the 13th-century cathedral in Paris. 


The good news: Gothic architecture is built to handle this kind of disaster.




Firefighters work to put out the immense blaze that threatened to consume the Notre-Dame Cathedral. 


Michel Euler/AP



As the world watched in horror, Notre-Dame Cathedral erupted in flames on Monday evening in Paris, sending massive plumes of smoke rising from the Île de la Cité in the medieval heart of the city.



 Flames swiftly consumed the entire roof of the structure, and elements of the cathedral, including the central spire over the crossing where the transepts intersect the nave and chancel, collapsed into the blaze.



 One of the world’s greatest surviving works of Gothic architecture—a monument that had endured for more than 800 years—appeared to be in danger of complete destruction.



But it has survived: While the damage to the interior of the historic building is still uncertain, the fire did not consume Notre-Dame, according to authorities in Paris.



 The blaze stopped short of the two belfry towers that house the cathedral’s immense bells, the site immortalized by Victor Hugo in The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. “The worst has been avoided even though the battle is not completely won,” said French President Emmanuel Macron.


That’s the good news about Gothic architecture: It’s strong stuff, built to withstand even an inferno.


“It’s not that they’re designed to be burned down, but it’s designed so that if the roof burns off, it’s hard for [the fire] to spread to the rest of the building,” says Lisa Reilly, an associate professor of architectural history at the University of Virginia and a scholar of medieval architecture. 


“In the Middle Ages, the thought was that stone vaults [could be] used to prevent the spread of fire.”


In Notre-Dame, as in other Gothic cathedrals, the ceiling—what a person sees above when she steps into the building and looks up—is a stone vault. 




Above that area is the equivalent of an attic space. Heavy timbers hold up the roof above the stone vault. Typically in the Middle Ages, these wood truss systems would be covered in pitch to make them more resistant to rot (*decay) (which also, unfortunately, makes them more prone to burning). But the stone structure itself is fundamentally fireproof.


*truss (wooden or metal frame that supports a structure such as a roof or bridge 지붕, 다리과 같은 구조물을 지탱하는 목재 혹은 금속 프레임 얼개


The collapse of the roof is also not necessarily a threat to the integrity of the building. In 12th- and 13th-century buildings of this type, the walls are held in place by flying buttresses. 


The arch elements along the building’s exterior transfer the weight of the walls, the roof, and the stone-vault ceiling through the pillars of masonry that circle the building.


 “Basically, it’s a structural exoskeleton, with the support system largely on the outside of the building,” Reilly says.

(*exoskeleton: 바깥 골격: 외골격: 단단한 껍질: hard covering on the outside of organisms such as insects and crustaceans that provides support and protection)


There’s another bit of good news. Notre-Dame was an early Gothic building: Its cornerstone was laid in 1163 and it was completed in 1345. 


While pollution, weather, and politics all pose particular threats, the cathedral’s walls are more stout than they would have been had it been constructed 50 or 60 years later, Reilly says.


But those walls are still vulnerable to heat. The building is made of limestone, and if the stone cracks due to the high heat, that can cause the walls to destabilize.


As devastating as this fire is, Europe has been here before: Wars, accidents, and natural disasters have claimed many architectural treasures.



Stone also makes extinguishing the fire a material risk. Firefighters don’t really have any choice, but inundating a stone building with water can compromise the structure. (President Donald Trump’s tweeted suggestion—flooding the cathedral from “flying water tankers”—would have been a bad idea.)



 According to Megan Rispoli, a project manager for Walter B. Melvin Architects, dousing the flames could have consequences, since the stone walls have absorbed heat from the fire, causing them to expand; bring down the temperature suddenly, and thermal contraction can shatter them.




“If you put really cold water on fire-heated stones, stones develop all sorts of cracks,” she says. “We’ve seen it happen with other masonry buildings that catch fire.”





Notre-Dame burned into the night. (Benoit Tessier/Reuters)



Rispoli, an architectural preservationist, works primarily with exterior masonry. In New York, she has worked on the restoration of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Grace Church, and other religious projects. She also specializes in ruins like the Cedar Island Lighthouse in East Hampton, which suffered a fire in the 1970s and has sat vacant ever since.



“The best-case scenario would be that the fire [at Notre-Dame] is limited to the ceiling and the roof structure,” Rispoli says. “A lot of the architecture below survives intact.”



As devastating as this fire is, Europe has been here before: Wars, accidents, and natural disasters have claimed a great many architectural treasures over the centuries. 



With their wood-framed interiors, large churches and cathedrals of the medieval era have long been vulnerable to conflagrations.  (*콘플레그레이션:a very large fire that causes a lot of damage)



In London, old St. Paul’s Cathedral, once among the largest in Europe, succumbed during the Great Fire of 1666. St. Martin’s Cathedral in Utrecht, the only example of classic Gothic architecture in the Netherlands, was destroyed by fires and repeatedly rebuilt until another element, this time a storm, caused its nave to collapse for good in 1674. (If it reads as though cathedrals are always bursting into flames, consider that history is long and cathedrals must survive a lot of it.)



Since the beginning of the 20th century, a few countries have worked hard on trying to bring some of these lost monuments back to life—sometimes with great success. Perhaps the most famous  was the 13th century cathedral at Reims, which burned after a German bombardment in September 1914. 


The former coronation church of France’s kings, it was the equal of Notre-Dame in beauty; indeed, the two buildings were restored in the 19th century by the same architect, Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc.



The Reims Cathedral caught fire after shells hit some scaffolding on its external walls. Filled with hay bales to function as a makeshift hospital, the church went up like tinder, causing the lead roof to melt and bubble, leaving only scarred walls left. The sense of shock—Marcel Proust and the philosopher Henri Bergson were among the many to register their disgust—rippled across France, with the church being talked of as a “martyr cathedral.



“There are these very famous pictures of the roof [of the Reims Cathedral] gone, but you can still see the vaults,” Reilly says. “The roof had burned off. Some of the vaults are damaged, some aren’t.”



Restoring what had become a gutted skeleton might have seemed impossible, but the building was pieced back together between 1919 and 1938. What ultimately emerged was a singularly sensitive recreation of the building as it had appeared before the fire, though its wooden roof supports have been replaced with (elegant) concrete. 



Today, Reims is still a heart-liftingly beautiful place that, in matching muscularity with delicacy and grace, leaves the viewer awed at the things humans are capable of.




The first photos of the interior of Notre Dame reveal that much of the area around the altar appears relatively undamaged. (Philippe Wojazer/Reuters)



It may be days or weeks before French authorities know the full extent of the damage to Notre-Dame, and the cause of the blaze has not yet been determined.



 The restoration work underway at the cathedral (which was long overdue) has already been fingered as a likely culprit, since this work is hazardous. Restorers use torches in soldering work, for example, and solvents that might be flammable.



“It could just be a tragic accident on a worksite. We just don’t know that yet,” says Peg Breen, president of the New York Landmarks Conservancy. “It has nothing to do with [the building] being old.”



Even determining the scope of the fire will take a lot of work. Now that the fire is extinguished, engineers will need to stabilize the surviving structure before a thorough examination can proceed. 



Colleen Heemeyer, the manager for grants and technical services at Sacred Sites, a division of the New York Landmarks Conservancy, expects that preservationists will use drones to inspect the damage. Notre-Dame, which drew about 13 million visitors every year, is likely to represent a colossal historic preservation project.



“They’ll have the best and the brightest looking at this structure ASAP,” Heemeyer says. “As far as completing an assessment and designing a plan for stabilization and restoration? I think you’re looking at months, if not years.”




While the damage is sure to be extensive, governments and institutions around the world will be standing by to help, Breen says. “This is a tragedy for the world.”


There was more hopeful news on the day: Paris Match reported that the artworks and holy sacraments of Notre-Dame were all rescued safely. 


No injuries were reported, either among civilians or firefighters or other emergency responders. But the world may have lost some of its most beautiful stained glass windows, and it could be some time before Notre-Dame’s bells ring out over the city again.



About the Author

-

Kriston Capps is a staff writer for CityLab covering housing, architecture, and politics. He previously worked as a senior editor for Architect magazine.


Feargus O'Sullivan -

Feargus O'Sullivan is a contributing writer to CityLab, covering Europe. His writing focuses on housing, gentrification and social change, infrastructure, urban policy, and national cultures. He has previously contributed to The Guardian, The Times, The Financial Times, and Next City, among other publications.

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