정책비교/국제정치2018. 1. 18. 08:53

Congo, Coltan, and Cell Phones: A People’s History

Teaching Activity. By Alison Kysia. 28 pages.
In this lesson, students learn about the colonial history of Congo, debate responsibility for crimes against humanity, and investigate the connection, past and present, between the exploitation of natural resources and violence.

  • Time Periods: 19th Century, 20th Century | Themes: Imperialism, US Foreign Policy, World History/Global Studies | Resource Types: Teaching Activities (Free)


More than 5 million people have been killed in Democratic Republic of the Congo since the late 1990s, home to some of the most serious human rights violations since World War II. A look back at Congo’s history sets the stage. From 1885 to 1908, Congo was colonized by the king of Belgium, Leopold II, who took it as his own personal property.

 Initially, Leopold did not know that Congo was rich in wild rubber, one of the hottest commodities on the global market at the time. At the opening of the 20th century, Congo was the most profitable colony in Africa. It is estimated that Leopold made about 220 million francs, equivalent to $1.1 billion today.

Leopold refused to pay a fair price for labor or resources, and instead enslaved the population through a terror campaign, forcing the Congolese to harvest rubber. The magnitude of the violence is incomprehensible. During Leopold’s rule, 8 million to 10 million people were killed through a variety of colonial policies, making it one of the worst cases of European colonial brutality.

Congo’s colonial history foreshadows the current instability and violence plaguing the country. Since 1997, more than 5 million people have been killed there, making it one of the bloodiest battle zones since World War II. That year marked the end of a 32-year dictatorship (1965–1997) led by Joseph Mobutu, also known as Mobutu Sese Seko, a generously compensated and welcomed friend of six U.S. presidents.

 He came to power by assisting the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in assassinating the first democratically elected prime minister, Patrice Lumumba, in 1961. They wanted Lumumba dead because of his desire to nationalize natural resources in Congo where the money could be used to create a functioning state.

Just as the bloodshed of the colonial period was financed by highly lucrative natural resources like rubber, the violence today is likewise fueled by natural resources. One of those is coltan, a mineral required for cell phone production. Congo is rich in coltan. By studying this history, we can see a direct connection between the brutality of colonialism and the contemporary injustice in Congo: highly coveted natural resources, exploited by distant, powerful nations.

Posted by NJ원시

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news2013. 12. 7. 06:29

(1) 축구와 정치는 분리되지 않는다. (2) 운수 좋은 날 ? 한국 조 추첨.

말도 많고 탈도 많고, 전국적인 저항과 데모가 일어나고 있는, 브라질 2014년 월드컵. 축구의 나라라고 해도 과언이 아닐 정도인 브라질에서 왜 시민들이 월드컵 개최 당국에 저항하고 있는가? 브라질 노동자당 출신 룰라 Lula 전 대통령까지 비난의 화살이 가해지고 있다. 

병원, 학교 등 당장 필요한 공공서비스 예산은 삭감되거나 늘지 않고, 브라질 월드컵에 76억 달러 (8조 300억 한화)를  쏟아 붓는다. 

브라질 시민들이 데모하는 이유는, 이 8조 300억 세금을 쏟아부어서 경기장, 미디어 시설 지으면, 그 혜택은 (1) FIFA 협회 (2) 미디어 재벌 (3) 광고 회사 (4) 이들과 결탁한 브라질 관료들에게 돌아갈 것이라고 비판하고 있다. 

룰라 전 대통령도 비난의 대상이 되는 이유는, 브라질 월드컵 시설 확충 비용은 세금이나 공금이 아니라, 민간 사업자들이 하게될 것이라고 약속했는데, 현실에서는 국민세금으로 그 시설을 짓고 있기 때문이다. 2014년 월드컵까지 브라질 시민들과 정부의 대응에 주목할 필요가 있다. 

스포츠 마케팅에 정부가 국민세금으로 판 깔아주고, 돈은 스포츠 업체들이 챙겨가고, 관중들은, 그것도 돈 많은 관중들만 선택적으로 실전 경기를 볼 수 있게 된다. 월드컵이 세계 축구인들과 팬들의 잔치가 아니라, 한판 챙겨가는 떳다방 돈벌이 수단으로 전락해서는 안된다. 그런 외침이 지금 브라질에서 일어나고 있다. 

(브라질 한 시민이, 브라질 월드컵 개최 준비에 국민세금을 쓰지 말것을 요구하는 시위를 벌이고 있다. 정부 공금의 낭비와 부정부패를 비판하고 나선 브라질 시민들)

(한화로 8조 300억에 해당하는 76억 달러, 브라질 정부가 내놓은 월드컵 축구 준비에 투입되는 돈 규모와 사용지출 내역서이다. 공항, 경기장 건축, 보안 안전, 항만, 통신, 관광사업비가 주를 이룬다. 브라질 시민들은 세금을 너무 많이 지출하고 있다고 비난하고 있다)

(2) 오늘 막 끝난 월드컵 조추첨, 홍명보 감독 운수 대통했다. 그룹 H 조에 속한 한국은 벨기에, 알제리, 러시아와 예선전을 치르는데, 러시아와 한국이 16강 본선행이 유력해보인다. 강팀 콜롬비아, 아이보리 코스트와 대결해야 하는 일본에 비해서 홍명보 감독은 운이 좋다. 삼바의 남자가 되려나?

Posted by NJ원시

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  1. 김기만

    축구 잘 안보시나봐요...벨기에가 지금 거의 우승권에 근접한 팀인데...

    2013.12.07 08:41 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL : REPLY ]
    • 벨기에, 러시아, 한국 경기 결과는 예측 불허입니다. 결과를 지켜보죠.

      2013.12.07 10:27 신고 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL ]
    • 최근 언론보도는 이렇습니다.
      브라질: 10분의 3
      아르헨티나 5분의 1
      독일: 5분의 1
      스페인: 6분의 1

      벨기에 16분의 1
      네덜란드 18분의 1
      이탈리아 20분의 1
      잉글랜드 (영국): 22분의 1
      콜롬비아: 25분의 1
      우루과이 25분의 1
      포르투갈: 25분의 1
      프랑스 25분의 1

      러시아: 40분의 1
      칠레: 50분의 1
      보스니아-헤르제고비나: 80분의 1 (구 유고 연방공화국)
      미국: 100분의 1
      스위스: 100분의 1
      아이보리 크스트: 100분의 1
      에콰도르 : 100분의 1
      일본: 100분의 1
      멕시코: 100분의 1
      가나: 125분의 1

      나이지리아: 200분의 1
      그리스: 200분의 1
      카메룬: 250분의 1
      한국: 250분의 1
      오스트랄리아: 250분의 1

      이란 : 500분의 1
      온두라스: 500분의 1
      코스타 리카 : 500분의 1

      알제리: 2500분의 1

      2013.12.07 11:50 신고 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL ]
  2. 해외 언론에서 바라보는 축구 우승 후보 확률:

    벨기에는 16분의 1. 한국은 250분의 1 . 일본은 100분의 1.

    World Cup 2014 Betting Odds And Team-By-Team Preview: Brazil, Spain, Germany, Argentina Favorites To Lift The Trophy?
    By Jason Le Miere
    on November 21 2013 4:04 PM
    Share this article
    Neymar and Brazil are favorites to win the 2014 World Cup on home soil. Reuters
    After this week’s playoffs, the 32 teams that will compete in next year’s World Cup have now been decided. Next month’s draw promises to offer up some mouth-watering groups as anticipation builds toward Brazil next summer.

    Here’s a quick preview, as well as the latest odds (provided by Paddy Power) for each of the nations that will be at soccer’s showpiece event.

    Brazil (10/3): Despite the enormous pressure, they showed they could use playing at home to their advantage in the Confederations Cup. The Selecao are growing into an increasingly impressive unit under Luiz Felipe Scolari, with star man Neymar improving all the time at Barcelona.

    Argentina (5/1): If Lionel Messi is fit and firing, no side at the World Cup will have better attacking options than Argentina. They should be thrilling to watch, but Alejandro Sabella’s side still have concerns defensively.


    Mexico Cruise Through To World Cup
    Ronaldo Hat-Trick Sends Portugal To Brazil
    Argentina Fail To Fire In Messi’s Absence
    Germany (5/1): An incredible generation of players is now coming into its prime and coach Joachim Low needs a trophy to affirm his fine tenure. However, they can still be susceptible defensively and their striker options are less than stellar.

    Spain (6/1): Can Spain really win four trophies in a row? The team remains largely unaltered since their dominance began in 2008, but this could well be the swansong for some, including Xavi. The pinching of Diego Costa from Brazil adds aggression up front, but could Spain be caught between old and new generations?

    Belgium (16/1): The dark horses have turned an increasingly lighter shade in recent months as they have been tipped by all and sundry. They have an unquestionably wonderful pool of players, but they also have a novice coach in former international Marc Wilmots and, for all their array of central defenders, they are weak at full-back.

    Holland (18/1): No European team qualified with a better record than the Netherlands, but then they also qualified impressively for Euro 2012 and that competition proved to be a disaster. Louis van Gaal has returned to typical Dutch principles and the young players he has introduced appear to have created a better harmony in the camp. Still, the new generation doesn’t, at least yet, appear to have the quality of their predecessors.

    Italy (20/1): Hugely impressive in reaching the final of Euro 2012, their tactical flexibility, mentality and the superb coaching of Cesare Prandelli make them more than the sum of their parts, which are far from insubstantial. If Giuseppe Rossi stays fit and firing, his partnership with Mario Balotelli promises much, but there are signs that the prowess of Andrea Pirlo is beginning to wane at the age of 34.

    England (22/1): England are paying the price for a lack of youth development with what will likely be the poorest group of players they will have taken to a tournament in at least 20 years. Roy Hodgson’s pragmatic style and disciplined coaching could still see them frustrate better teams, but they have little hope of making a real impact.

    Colombia (25/1): Striker like Radamel Falcao, Teofilo Gutierrez and Jackson Martinez, supported by the creativity of James Rodriguez and Fredy Guarin gives Argentine coach Jose Peckerman great options going forward. At the back Colombia are less impressive, with 37-year-old Mario Yepes still a mainstay of the side.

    Uruguay (25/1): Following a fourth-place showing in 2010 and wining the Copa America a year later, Uruguay had a major rocky patch in qualifying. They turned it around when wily coach Oscar Washington Tabarez went back to focusing on their principles of defense and organization. His nous and world-class forward duo Edinson Cavani and Luis Suarez elevate an average side to one that could again cause a stir.

    Portugal (25/1): With the most in-form player in the world, Cristiano Ronaldo, in their ranks, Portugal can be a threat to any team on the break. However, they have been less than the sum of their parts with several players failing to take their share of the slack. A lack of a quality striker remains a problem.

    France (25/1): As in the last two major tournaments, there remains fear of dressing-room unrest leading to their downfall. Yet their playoff comeback could be a turning point and they have been infused by promising players from the Under-20 World-Cup winning side. The European Championships on home soil in 2016 appears a more likely competition for them to truly prosper.

    Russia (40/1): Fabio Capello will ensure that Russia are at least well-disciplined and focused this time around. Some of their more instinctive attacking play has been blunted under the pragmatic Italian, however.

    Chile (50/1): The most exciting team at the last World Cup could well be that again in Brazil with Marcelo Bielsa having been replaced by fellow-Argentine and philosophical disciple Jorge Sampaoli. Their high-pressing, attacking style will win admirers and, with the likes of Alexis Sanchez and Arturo Vidal now coming into their primes, they could go far.

    Bosnia-Herzegovina (80/1): The achievement of qualifying for their first major tournament after two successive failures in playoffs should not be underestimated. Edin Dzeko, Vedad Ibisevic and Miralem Pjanic offer real quality in attack, but there is too much mediocrity in the side, especially at the back, for Safet Susic’s side to make a major impact.

    USA (100/1): After initial question marks, Jurgen Klinsmann impressively qualified the United States with Concacaf’s best record. However, as recent friendlies showed, they remain a largely workman-like side. The two players who can elevate them beyond that, Clint Dempsey and Landon Donovan, appear to have passed their peaks.

    Switzerland (100/1): Undoubtedly the seeded them that all the non-seeds will want to face. In their favor, they do have quality with Gokhan Inler, Xherdan Shaqiri and Granit Xhaka, as well as the shrewd coaching of two-time Champions League winner Ottmar Hitzfeld, who will retire after the tournament.

    Ivory Coast (100/1): After much disappointment, this is likely to be the Ivory Coast’s golden generation’s last chance to really achieve something. Their failures at continental level have been inexcusable, but they are due a more amenable group after horrors in 2010 and 2006. Still, with Didier Drogba and others now past their best, and with Sabri Lamouchi still appearing a very strange choice of coach, they could again come home early.

    Ecuador (100/1): There will be much support for Ecuador after the untimely death of Christian “Chucho Benitez” during qualifying. Ecuador should pose opposition problems down the flanks with Antonio Valencia and potential future star Jefferson Montero, but a lack of goals and a weak defense will hamper their chances of making it out of their group.

    Japan (100/1): Alberto Zaccheroni’s side is likely to be one of the best to watch with their technical, passing play led by Keisuke Honda and Shinji Kagawa. A lack of quality in both penalty areas, though, will ultimately prove their downfall.

    Croatia (100/1): While they only just scraped through qualifying after Niko Kovac replaced the hapless Igor Stimac, Croatia still possess quality, especially in midfield with Luka Modric and Ivan Rakitic. The loss of Mario Mandzukic, likely for two matches, after his stupid sending off against Iceland will be a big blow.

    Mexico (100/1) On the back of victories at Under-17 and Olympic level, there were expectations at the start of qualifying that Mexico could finally go beyond the last-16 of a World Cup. By the end, though, there was euphoria at merely beating New Zealand to sneak into the tournament through the most secluded of back doors. There is still talent there and El Tri could yet prosper if it can be utilized correctly.

    Ghana (125/1): There is real quality at Ghana’s disposal with Kevin-Prince Boateng, the Ayew brothers and Kwadwo Asamoah, as well as the aging Michael Essien. Yet, many of their best players have also shown a lack of commitment to their country that could undermine their hopes.

    Nigeria (200/1): Stephen Keshi deserves immense credit for leading Nigeria to the African Cup of Nations title and World Cup qualification despite constantly having his job under threat from incompetence behind the scenes. Nigeria lack the quality of ’94 and ’98, but, with Victor Moses, Emmanuel Emenike and speed merchant Ahmed Musa they could throw up a surprise or two.

    Greece (200/1): They are again unlikely to be one of the neutral’s favorites as they once more rely on the stifling pragmatism that amazingly took them to the Euro 2004 title. The form of Olympiakos striker Konstantinos Mitroglou does, though, provide hope for a genuine goal-scoring threat.

    Cameroon (250/1): Providing that Samuel Eto’o doesn’t have yet another change of mind about his international eligibility and can continue his recent upturn with Chelsea, then Cameroon will have at least one quality operator in Brazil. Ultimately, a lack of real ability elsewhere, combined with question marks over whether there will once more be unrest in the camp, is likely to render Cameroon also-rans.

    South Korea (250/1): Coach Hong Myung-Bo played at four World Cups including captaining his nation to fourth place on home soil in 2002, but it is hard to imagine him pulling off a similar feat in Brazil. With recent Bayer Leverkusen signing Son Heung-Min, they will be neat and tidy on the ball, but are unlikely to be anything more.

    Australia (250/1): With the generation that reached the last 16 in 2006 now retired or long past their best, Australia have little hope of matching that feat. The recent appointment of Ange Postecoglou provides some hope after humbling back-to-back 6-0 defeats to Brazil and France, along with some controversial comments, counted for predecessor Holger Osieck.

    Iran (500/1): Qualified impressively by finishing ahead of South Korea in their group and can count on the nous of highly respected coach Carlos Queiroz. Expect Iran to be difficult to break down, as Queiroz’s previous team Portugal were at the 2010 World Cup. Unlike his home nation, though, Iran can offer little beyond that.

    Honduras (500/1): Took advantage of Mexico’s failings to snag an automatic berth, but, with one notable exception at the Azteca, they struggled playing away from the stifling atmosphere at home. The Central Americans are Unlikely to make any waves in Brazil.

    Costa Rica (500/1): Like Honduras, Costa Rica were poor on their travels, but they do have more quality at their disposal. Colombian Jorge Luis Pinto sets his side up to keep things tight at the back while hoping to prosper on the break with attacking talent like Bryan Ruiz, Joel Campbell, Christian Bolanos and top-scorer in qualifying Alvaro Saborio.

    Algeria (2500/1): Perhaps the most fortunate side to have made it to World Cup after benefitting from some terrible refereeing in their playoff with Burkina Faso. The villain of that piece, Madjid Bougherra remains the defensive mainstay for a team that is unlikely to win many friends in Brazil. They should, however, be slightly more entertaining than in 2010, particularly as they can call on the talents of Valencia’s Sofiane Feghouli.

    2013.12.07 11:43 신고 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL : REPLY ]
  3. 솔직히전력으로만보면벨기에러시아죠 예상으로치면 벨기에러시아가뽑혀야맞다고봄..

    2013.12.10 22:17 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL : REPLY ]
    • 예. 전력상으로는 벨기에와 러시아가 올라갈 확률이 높다고들 합니다. 하지만, 실전에서는 혼전이 될 가능성이 커보입니다. 예측불허의 경기가 될 것같습니다. 1승 2무를 해주면 좋을텐데...그게 원정이라서 쉽지 않을 것입니다만.

      2013.12.11 15:50 신고 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL ]