정책비교/국제정치2018. 11. 3. 11:43


루이 필립 로숑 : Louis Philippe Rochon 경제학과 교수 기고문: 캐나다 자유당 트루도 정부 소득 불평등 정책 일관성 부족하다.


내용요약: 


캐나다 저스틴 트루도 정부의 소득 불평등 정책이 일관성 떨어지고, 혼선을 빚고 있다. 


저스틴 트루도 자유당 정부가 캐나다 부자들의 탈세 탈루 혐의(역외 탈세 Offshore tax evasion)에 대해 침묵하고 있다. 

부자 증세가 경제발전을 가로막지 않는데도 증세를 꺼리고 있다. 


자유당 정부가 부자들의 조세저항을 두려워하고 있다.하지만 그 부자들은 겨우 1% 인구이고, 많아야 10%이다. 


왜 저스틴 트루도는 캐나다의 소득 불평등 심화를 해소하는 정책을 적극적으로 강구하지 않는가? 


트루도가 현재 캐나다 소득 불평등 심화에 만족하거나, 원래 자기 개인적인 견해일 수도 있다. 하지만 이는 캐나다 사회와 경제를 위협할 뿐만 아니라, 캐나다 민주주의 제도 자체를 훼손한다. 지난 30년 동안 캐나다에서는 소득 불평등이 지속적으로 증가해왔다. 


현재 경제는 ‘이원화 경제 dual economy’ 체제이다. 인구 1% 부자의 이익에 도움되는 금융자본 경제가 하나의 경제이고, 노동자가 설 땅이 없고 노동권이 사라지는 ‘정체된 경제’가 또 다른 하나의 경제이다. 이는 지속가능하지 않다. 


현재 이러한 이원화된 이중 경제가 지속된다면, 캐나다 자본주의 체제와 민주주의 제도는 소수 부자가 지배하는 과두체제가 될 것이다.


버니 샌더스가 지적한대로, 한 나라를 넘어 이제 “세계적인 과두체제”로 퇴락할 수 있다. 상위 부자 1%가 정치 정당에 돈을 대고 정치를 쥐락펴락할 수 있게 되었다. 그 부자가 직접 한 나라의 재무장관이 되기도 한다. 이렇게 되면 사적인 부와 정치의 경계선이 흐려지게 된다. 그 부자 출신 재무장관은 부자 기업들에 부과되는 법인세를 낮추는 법안을 통과시킬 것이다. 


이런 이야기가 전혀 새로운 것은 아니다. 이제 더 뚜렷한 우리들의 현실 일상이 되고 말았다. 부자 정치가들은 그들이 알짜배기는 다 먹고 99% 사람들에게는 먹다남은 부스러기만 던져준다. 


저스틴 트루도 정부는 더 늦기 전에 소수부자 정치 체제,과두체제의 씨앗이 더 자라기 전에 강력한 정책을 써서 소득 불평등 심화를 막아내야 한다.




https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/opinion-rochon-canada-income-inequality-1.4408808

Time for Trudeau government to show leadership on income inequality


As the income gap widens, Canada is in danger of becoming a country ruled by the rich: Louis-Philippe Rochon


Louis-Philippe Rochon · for CBC News · Posted: Nov 18, 2017 12:00 PM CT | Last Updated: November 18, 2017


A 2011 Occupy Vancouver protest. Income inequality is increasing dramatically in Canada, says economics professor Louis-Philippe Rochon, and the government must act to halt it. (Jeff Vinnick/Getty Images)

The Trudeau government keeps surprising us all with its conflictual and incoherent approach to policy. Its latest flip-flop centres around an issue that has possible long-term consequences — income inequality.


While a few months ago, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was saying "The economy is doing well, people are doing well, and it's partially because we're removing some of the benefits for the wealthiest," tax reforms now seem to be going nowhere, and the government seems to be even turning a blind eye (again) to recent news of offshore havens for the wealthy.


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Trudeau's reluctance to move on these changes is puzzling for two reasons. First, a plurality, if not a majority, of Canadians approve of taxing the wealthiest. Indeed, there is little doubt income inequality has become one of the biggest economic and political problems today.


Second, economic research is clearly showing that increasing taxes on the wealthiest Canadians will not hamper economic growth.


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Given these two arguments, the federal government's about-face is certainly puzzling and raises the question: why? Certainly, there was a backlash from those who would eventually pay higher taxes, but they are, by definition, the one per cent — or the 10 per cent. So why risk alienating a much larger proportion of the electorate in order to placate the one per cent?



Prime Minister Justin Trudeau speaks to members of the media as Finance Minister Bill Morneau looks on at a press conference on tax reforms in Stouffville, Ont., on Oct. 16, 2017. Trudeau's reluctance to move on tax changes is puzzling, says Louis-Philippe Rochon. (Nathan Denette/Canadian Press)

Perhaps it is for political reasons — or even for reasons rooted in Trudeau's own personal values, where rising inequality is an acceptable means to an unspecified end. But refusing to deal seriously with growing inequality poses serious threats — not only obvious economic and social ones, but also threats to our democratic institutions.


In the last three decades or so, inequality has clearly increased dramatically. We are now as unequal a society as we were back in the Depression of the 1930s. If governments don't start aggressively addressing the issue soon, we may reach a tipping point from which it will be difficult to retreat. 


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Several years ago, while lecturing in Mexico, I spoke of the "dual economy" — an old concept — and of how there seems to be a new economic structure emerging: a thriving financial economy serving the one per cent (of the one tenth of the one per cent), and a stagnant economy where workers are losing ground every day and labour rights are disappearing.


The question I posed to the audience at the time was, "Is this sustainable?" In other words, can our economic system persist with ever-increasing inequality and such flagrant social and economic disparities?


The answer depends on how you define sustainable. I believe it can sustain itself, but it will be under a different configuration, one that is profoundly undemocratic.


A move toward government by the rich

Indeed, if it continues, we will continue to witness the slow transformation of our capitalist and democratic system into an oligarchical system, where the very few rich control the political and economic levers of society. A few days ago, Bernie Sanders warned us about the "the rapid movement toward global oligarchy."


If you think I am exaggerating, well, consider that the same sentiment was echoed in 2014 by economics Nobel Laureate Robert Solow: "If that kind of concentration of wealth continues, then we get to be more and more an oligarchical country, a country that's run from the top."


Nobel Laureate Paul Krugman made the same observation at around the same time.



Fromer Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders is among those who have warned of 'the rapid movement toward global oligarchy.' Louis-Philippe Rochon argues, 'In many ways, we have already become a system where the rich govern themselves.' (Jason Redmond/Getty Images)

Those in the top one per cent end up ruling our political parties and systems — they fund our political parties, and attend fundraisers that give them access to our political leaders. In some cases, they become a minister of finance or treasury secretary. The line that divides politics from private financial wealth becomes murkier and murkier. They then adopt laws that reduce taxation on corporations, and reduce taxation on the very rich.


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In many ways, we have already become a system where the rich govern themselves. This may not be a new argument, but it is one that is becoming all too real.


Every so often, they throw crumbs to placate the 99 per cent. After all, a system that needs to sustain itself requires a stable core.  


The Trudeau government must now show true leadership and deal with inequality in a forceful and decisive way before it is too late, and before they encourage the seeds of oligarchy to grow even more.


This column is part of CBC's Opinion section. For more information about this section, please read this editor's blog and our FAQ.



ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Louis-Philippe Rochon


Louis-Philippe Rochon is a professor of economics at Laurentian University and co-editor of the Review of Keynesian Economics. He is currently on sabbatical at the Universite de Grenoble-Alpes.



과두 체제 寡頭 體制 - Oligarchy


Posted by NJ원시

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